Qualifying for Social Security Disability (SSD) requires that you meet the criteria for the program. There are several that apply to the program. If you don't meet them, you likely won't be able to receive these benefits even if you were working when you became disabled.
One of the important points that you have to remember is that you need to have a suitable work history. Typically, this means that you have worked at least 40 credits total. At least 20 of these must have been earned in the 10 years immediately prior to the date you became disabled.
The amount you need to earn varies each year. For example, you need to earn $1,320 in 2018 to earn one credit. The Social Security Administration (SSA) keeps track of this, which is one reason it is so important to make sure your W-2 and other tax forms are correct.
On top of the work credits you need, you also have to be fully unable to work due to the disability. The extent of the disability and its impacts on you are going to be scrutinized by the people who review your case.
Some conditions are included in the list of disabling conditions that the SSA maintains. There is a chance that it will be easier for you to get these payments if you have one on this list.
If you feel that your case isn't being handled appropriately, you might need to appeal the decisions. This is often a lengthy process but it might get you the results that you need. Be sure you watch for the time limits on the forms you receive. These are often short and must be complied with.